Reconnecting Asia

Mapping continental ambitions

Glossary of Terms

Infrastructure

Automatic Block Signaling (ABS)
A signaling system that divides a railway line into a series of sections, or “blocks,” allowing trains running in the same direction to operate safely.
Bypass
An alternative route passing around a town or its center.
Carriageway-Roadway
A road on which a vehicle is not restricted by any physical barriers or separation to move laterally.
Civil Works
A category of procurement that refers to construction, repair, rehabilitation, demolition, restoration, or maintenance of roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings, and related services such as transportation, insurance, installation, commissioning, and training.
Consultants
Any company or organization providing technical assistance, project design, or other non-construction services.
Controlled Access Road
A type of highway designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow regulated.
Dry Port
An inland transportation terminal connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a center for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations.
Electrification (of railways)
The process of supplying electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply.
Intermodal transportation
The movements of passengers or freight from one mode of transport to another.
Implementers
The entity responsible for the administration of project processes.
Logistics Center
A depot or hub designed to handle operations, such as a warehouse, freight forwarder, or repair depot.
Multimodal transport
A combination of at least two means of transport (ex. air, road, rail, or sea).
Operators
The organization responsible for day-to-day operations of a project after its completion.
Track Gauge
The spacing between the rails on a railway track.
Trunk Road
A major road used for long-distance travel.
Type
Category of infrastructure: road, rail, seaport, and intermodal.

Financial & Administrative

Award
A buyer's decision to select a supplier for a specific contract, following an evaluation of offers received.
Closing date or loan closure
The date that a Multilateral Development Bank (MDB) may terminate the right of the borrower to make withdrawals from the loan account. Expenditures incurred after the loan closing dates are not financed under the loan.
Co-financing
Different lenders agree to fund under the same documentation and security packages but may have different interest rates, repayment profiles, and terms.
Contractor
Any company or organization performing construction for the project.
Disbursement
The act of paying out money, such as money paid out to run a business, cash expenditures and other payments.
Exposure
The outstanding balance of a loan; or in the case of a guarantee, the value of the obligation held. For an equity investment, the market value or fair value of the investment.
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
An investment made by a company or entity based in one country, into a company or entity based in another country.
Funder(s)
The name of the organization(s) that have provided financing for the project as reported by an official document or other source, such as the source of funding’s own website, the relevant government’s website, or the client/implementing agency’s website.
Grant
A sum of money provided to an MDB developing member country that does not need to be paid back and has the overall objective of promoting sustainable social and/or economic development.
Implementing agency
The entity responsible for the administration of project implementation processes (usually, but not always the government ministry or organization that receives the project funding).
International competitive bidding (ICB)
A procurement method in which bids from competing contractors, suppliers, or vendors are invited by openly advertising the scope, specifications, and terms and conditions of the proposed contract.
Invitation to bid
Used for the procurement of goods and services of standard and firm specifications.
Loan
A sum of money provided to an MDB developing member country or private company that is paid back with interest and has the overall objective of promoting sustainable social and/or economic development.
Logistics
The process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, cost-effective flow and storage of goods and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements.
Multilateral Development Bank (MDB)
A financial institution that provides financing for national development. The bank is formed by a group of countries, consisting of both donor and borrowing nations. Furthermore, an MDB offers financial advice regarding development projects.
Multi-tranche financing facility (MFF)
A flexible financing instrument offered by the Asian Development Bank (ADB). It enables ADB to provide assistance programmatically by aligning the provision of financing with project readiness and the long-term needs of a client.
Packages
One portion of the overall project, such as a section of a road or railway.
Public private Partnership (PPP)
A government service or private business venture that is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies.
Planned completion date
The completion date listed according to the project sources.
Preparatory works
Project implementation activities such as environmental/social impact assessment, collection of bids, preparation of the project site.
Procurement
The acquisition through purchase or lease of real property, goods or other products (including intellectual property), works or services.
Project status
Classifies projects as announced/under negotiation, started, preparatory works, under construction, completed, suspended, and cancelled.
Request for expression of interest
An advertisement to identify suppliers that wish to participate in a forthcoming solicitation.
Request for proposal
A standard legal procurement document for procurement of goods and services where the technical specifications or characteristics cannot be precisely determined, or are of a complicated/specialized nature which requires significant input from the supplier.
Restricted tendering
A procurement method that limits the request for tenders to a select number of suppliers, contractors, or service providers. This method is also called limited bidding and selective tendering.
Single-source procurement
Acquiring goods, services, and construction works from only one source. Also known as sole-source procurement, sole-source selection, and direct procurement, among other terms.
Sovereign loans
Loans extended to the government or guaranteed by the government.
Start date
The date on which an agreement for funding of the project was signed.
Start of Construction
The date on which physical construction began.
Sustainable Procurement
Procurement that integrates environmental protection requirements.
Syndication / B-loan
A co-financing arrangement involving funds from various sources provided to a single borrower or grant recipient with the risk shared among the loan providers.
Technical assistance
Financed activities that help developing member countries, including project preparation, capacity development, research and development, and studies.
Total reported cost
The total amount of money from all sources of funding spent on a project
Tranche
May comprise a loan, grant, guarantee, or MDB-administered co-financing to finance a project or a component under a project.
Transparency
A process by which reliable, timely information about existing conditions, decisions, and actions relating to the organization's activities is made accessible, visible, and understandable.
Two-stage tendering
A method of procurement under which unpriced technical proposals are invited first. The first stage technical proposal clarification is to be followed by the issuance of amended bidding documents and the submission of final technical proposals and priced bids in the second stage.
Undisbursed commitments
Undisbursed and/or unissued obligations of the bank based on signed legal documents (ex. loan agreement, shareholders’ agreement, and guarantee agreement).
Works
A category of procurement that refers to construction, repair, rehabilitation, demolition, restoration, maintenance of civil work structures, and related services such as transportation, insurance, installation, commissioning, and training.

Document Types

Administration Manuals
Describes how the borrower or grantee (executing and implementing agencies) will implement the project and deliver the results on time, with quality, within budget, and in accordance with government and MDB policies and procedures.
Aide-Memoires
A proposed agreement or negotiating text circulated informally among delegations for discussion without committing the originating delegation's country to the contents. It has no identified source, title, or attribution and no standing in the relationship involved.
Project Appraisal Documents (PAD)
Documents the project design and serves as the reference document for project authorization and subsequent implementation.
Completion Reports
A reporting format used to close out a project, and in some cases, to record project management lessons.
Concept Notes
Design paper meant to introduce the project.
Consultation Minutes
Documents meetings for consultations with local population residing in the project affected area.
Contract Award Notice
Documents that explain bid selection decisions.
Environmental and Social Assessment
Outlines procedures for the preparation of environmental assessment documents for a project to ensure environmental and social impacts are appropriately addressed and mitigated.
Financial Audits
Documents reflecting an independent, objective evaluation of an organization's financial reports and financial reporting processes.
Financing Agreements
Each agreement with the Bank providing for a loan for a project, including Procurement Plan and all documents incorporated by reference. If the Bank enters into a project agreement with an entity implementing the project, the term includes the project agreement.
Memoranda of Understanding
A formal agreement between two or more parties to establish an official partnership. MOUs are not legally binding, but they carry a degree of seriousness and mutual respect.
Miscellaneous Reports
Various studies and reports depending on project scope and components such as road safety surveys, tourism development potential and forecasts.
National Development Plans
Nation-wide economic policy frameworks, often including national infrastructure plans such as highway, railway, maritime, or agricultural growth and reconstruction.
Presentations & Brochures
Documents used for project outreach and promotion.
Press Releases
Documents with project news released to the public.
Procurement Documents
Standard documents for the prequalification of bidders, for the procurement of goods, and for the procurement of works (large contracts).
Project Agreements with Stakeholders
Documents consultations with people affected by the project.
Project Appraisal Documents (PAD)
Documents the project design and serves as the reference document for project authorization and subsequent implementation.
Progress Reports
Documents the progress of a project.
Resettlement Frameworks
Outlines the resettlement policy principles, procedures, and institutional arrangements to mitigate risks and offer opportunities to the people affected by the project.
Review and Approval Documents
Documents the approval process: Concept clearance → Due diligence → Term Sheet → Final Review → Board Consideration → Financial Close.
Safeguards Monitoring Reports
Cites environmental considerations that have been incorporated into the project.